basic condition to extract coal via open pit mining

Open Pit Mining Techniques|Surface Mines|Rock or Mineral ...

Open-pit Mining Open-pit mining, also known as opencast mining, open-cut mining, and strip mining, means a process of digging out rock or minerals from the earth by their elimination from an open pit or borrow. The word is used to distinguish this type of mining from …

GEOTECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN OPEN PIT MINES

Geotechnical Considerations in Open Pit Mines Version 1.0 Department of Minerals and Energy Page 3 of 49 1.0 INTRODUCTION The potentially hazardous nature of open pit mining requires the application of sound geotechnical engineering practice to mine design and general operating procedures, to …

How is coal mined and extracted? | Planète Énergies

Open-pit mining costs less than underground mining and is therefore more profitable in terms of productivity. Working conditions in these mines are also much safer. However, open-pit mining is less acceptable from an environmental standpoint, because it disfigures the …

Underground v.s. Surface Coal Mines: Is Deep Drilling ...

Surface mining. Opencast mining, otherwise known as surface mining consist of three different techniques: strip mining, open-pit mining, and mountain top blasting. In general, the three processes include breaking up soil and rocks via explosives and then removing debris until coal …

(PDF) Mining Methods: Part I-Surface mining - ResearchGate

Mining Methods: Part I-Surface mining. ... this work quantitatively and qualitatively investigated the effect of open-pit coal mining operations on rice paddy soils and rice plants grown for local ...

Holt Environmental Science Chapter 16 Mining and Minerals ...

a common method of subsurface mining that is used to extract coal and salt. Longwall. ... Surface mining. methods are used when ore deposits are located close to Earth's surface. Open-pit mining. a method that is often used when large quantities of near-surface ore are mined ... the process of returning land to its original or better condition ...

Coal mining - Choosing a mining method | Britannica.com

Coal mining - Choosing a mining method: The various methods of mining a coal seam can be classified under two headings, surface mining and underground mining. Surface and underground coal mining are broad activities that incorporate numerous variations in equipment and methods, and the choice of which method to use in extracting a coal seam depends on many technological, economic, …

Mining – Our Business – SUEK

Open-pit mining is the most efficient method of production in shallow deposits. It can extract all the coal within an area and fully recover very thick seams. Some of our open pits extract seams of 30 metres or more. Many of our open pits have been improved in recent years to increase output and efficiency.

Uranium: How is it Mined? - New Mexico Institute of Mining ...

In-situ Recover (ISR) Mining (also known as In-situ Leach or ISL) While not all uranium ore deposits are amendable to ISR, it is the preferred method to extract uranium since it is far cheaper to get the ores out of the ground and it is considered more environmentally friendly than traditional underground or open pit …

Digging deeper: Mining methods explained – Anglo American

The ore body is too deep to mine profitably by open pit. The grades or quality of the orebody are high enough to cover costs. Underground mining has a lower ground footprint than open pit mining. The underground mining methods we use include room and pillar, narrow vein stoping and large-scale mechanised mining.

Commonly used mining techniques to extract coal | IEA ...

However, many coals extracted by using these two methods need washing in a coal preparation plant. Surface mining: The mining technique is used when the coal seam is present near the earth's surface. The techniques followed in surface mining include open-pit mining, strip mining …

(PDF) COAL MINING METHODS - researchgate.net

This report highlights the coal mining methods, their significances, issues of concern and the stages of using coal after mining. ... it m ay be economical to extract the coal u sing open cut ...

Coal mining Facts for Kids - Kiddle encyclopedia

Start studying Mining terms. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. ... Open pit mining. Mining typically for metals as well as sand and gravel. Dredging. Mining for gold. Strip mining. for mining flat horizontal mineral beds. Contour Mining. used to extract coal from hilly terrain- Often leaves a high ...

What is a mining spoil - answers.com

Strip mining is a type of surface mining that involves excavating earth, rock, and other material to uncover a tabular, lens-shaped, or layered mineral reserve.

Open-pit mining - Wikipedia

Open-pit mining is to be considered one of the most dangerous sectors in the industrial world. It causes significant effects to miners health, as well as damage to the ecological land. Open-pit mining causes changes to vegetation, soil, and bedrock, which ultimately contributes to changes in surface hydrology, groundwater levels, and flow paths.

coal | National Geographic Society

A pit, sometimes called a borrow, is dug in an area. This pit becomes the open-pit mine, sometimes called a quarry. Open-pit mines can expand to huge dimensions, until the coal deposit has been mined or the cost of transporting the overburden is greater than the investment in the mine. Open-pit mining is usually restricted to flat landscapes.

Is coal easy to extract - answers.com

With deep=pit mining, shafts are dug vertically downwards, then tunnels excavated horizontally to extract the coal. With open-cast mining, the top-soil is simply scraped away, using large ...

Surface Mining Techniques used in the Oil Sands | Oil ...

SURFACE MINING ≠ STRIP MINING: Although sometimes mistakenly referred to as strip mining, oil sands is actually mined from an open-pit below several meters of overburden.Strip mining is the mining of a relatively flat deposit very close to the surface, commonly used in coal or phosphate industries.

Surface Mining Methods and Equipment

UNESCO – EOLSS SAMPLE CHAPTERS CIVIL ENGINEERING – Vol. II - Surface Mining Methods and Equipment - J. Yamatomi and S. Okubo ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) Figure 2. Change in production and productivity of US coal mines The higher productivity for open pit mining equipment also lowers costs.

How Is Graphite Extracted? | Sciencing

Apr 25, 2017· Graphite is a natural form of carbon characterized by its hexagonal crystalline structure. It is extracted using both open pit and underground mining methods. Although the naturally occurring ore is abundantly found and mined in many countries, including the U.S., the largest producer of graphite is China, followed by India.

Coal Mining and Processing | Energy Trends Insider

Surface mining can be used when the coal is buried less than 200 feet underground. In surface mining, giant machines remove the top-soil and layers of rock to expose large beds of coal. Once the mining is finished, the dirt and rock are returned to the pit, the topsoil is replaced, and the area is replanted.

Optimization Research on the In-pit Haulage System ...

Optimization Research on the In-pit Haulage System Development Under Open Pit and Underground Mining Conditions XIAO Cangyan1, GUO Liwen2, CHEN Shuzhao3 1College of Light Industry, Hebei Polytechnic University, Tangshan, hebei 2College of Resource and Environment, Hebei Polytechnic University, Tangshan, hebei 3China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu

The Advantages of Open Pit Mining | Sciencing

Mar 13, 2018· Open pit mining does offer some advantages over traditional deep shaft mining. Pit mining is more cost effective than shaft mining because more ore can be extracted and more quickly. The working conditions are safer for the miners because there is no risk of cave in or toxic gas. Open pit mining is the preferred ...

Open-Pit Mining Methods

Open-pit mining methods are applicable to mining ore deposits that apex at or near the surface. If the deposit apexes below the surface, the overburden and barren capping overlying the ore must be removed in advance of open-pit mining. The removal of this material is known as stripping.

Extraction and Processing of Minerals & the Environmental ...

Extraction and Processing of Minerals & the Environmental Impacts of Mineral Use. ... open-pit mining is utilized. A large, open pit is created as machines scrape off any earth that is not ore and ...

CHAPTER 11 Mining Technology - Princeton University

cial mining technologies to extract Federal coal reserves from deep underground seams. The chapter discusses: three surface mining techniques that are used in the West: 1) area strip, 2) open pit, and 3) terrace pit; two methods of underground mining in the West: 1) room and pillar with contin-uous miners, and 2) longwall mining;

What are the main methods of mining? | American ...

There are four main mining methods: underground, open surface (pit), placer, and in-situ mining. Underground mines are more expensive and are often used to reach deeper deposits. Surface mines are typically used for more shallow and less valuable deposits.

Basics of an open pit mine - Mine Engineer.Com

Open pit mines can be used in coal mining, and they are used extensively in "hard rock" mining for ores such as metal ores, copper, gold, iron, aluminum, and many minerals. In a open pit coal mine, the pit bottom would be the bottom mined coal seam elevation, since it is usually feasible to extract multiple seams when surface mining coal.

Open-pit mining – General Overview - Protect Ecuador ...

Open-pit mining – General Overview Open-pit mining (also known as open-cut mining or opencast mining ) is a type of strip mining in which the ore deposit extends very deep in the ground, necessitating the removal of layer upon layer of overburden and ore .

Surface Strip Coal Mining Handbook - sacea.org.za

This handbook on surface strip coal mining serves as a general introduction to the subject of mining, specifically surface strip coal mining. It is intended as handbook for engineers who are new to the field of mining engineering, or for students who are entering the field with little prior knowledge.

Mining Flashcards | Quizlet

1) The acid is already present in trapped underground pockets and is released by mining equipment. 2)Concentrated acids used to dissolve metals from the rock are picked up in rainwater. 3)Abandoned mining equipment leaks acids from batteries. 4)Mining exposes unweathered rock surfaces that react with water and the atmosphere to generate acids.

Coal mining - Wikipedia

When coal seams are near the surface, it may be economical to extract the coal using open cut (also referred to as open cast, open pit, mountaintop removal or strip) mining methods. Open cast coal mining recovers a greater proportion of the coal deposit than underground methods, as more of the coal seams in the strata may be exploited. This equipment can include the following: Draglines which ...